mesodermal – мезодермальный erythrocytes – эритроциты platelets – тромбоциты carbon – углерод dioxid – диоксид span – промежуток light-staining – легкое окрашивание to aggregate – соединяться
19. Blood. Formed elements of the blood. Leukocytes
Leukocytes, or white blood cells, are primarily with the cellular and humoral defense of the organism foreign materials. Leukocytes are classified as granulocytes (neutrophils, eosinophils, basophils) and agranulocytes (lympmonocytes). Granulocytes are named according to the staining properties of their specific granules. Neutrophils sare 10–16 mm in diameter. They have 3–5 nuclear lobes and contain azurophilic granules (lysosomes), which contain hydrolytic enzymes for bacterial destruction, in their cytoplasm. Neutrophils are phagocytes that are drawn (chemotaxis) to bacterial chemoattractants. They are the primary cells involved in the acute inflammatory response and represent 54–62 % of leukocytes. Eosinophils: they have a bilobed nucleus and possess acid granulations in their cytoplasm. These granules contain hydrolytic enzymes and peroxidase, which a discharged into phagocytic vacuoles. Eosinophils are more numerous in the blood during allergic diseases; they norma asent only – 3 % of leukocytes. Basophils: they possess large spheroid granules, which are basophilic and metachromatic Basophils degranulate in certain immune reaction, releasing heparin and histamine into their surroundings They also release additional vasoactive amines and slow reacting substance of anaphylaxis (SRS-A) consisting of leu-kotrienes LTC4, LTD4, and LTE4. They represent less than 1 % – of leukocytes Agranulocytes are named according to their lack of specific granules. Lymphocytes are generally small cells measuring 7 – 10 mm in diameter and constitute 25–33 % of , leukocytes. They con tain circular dark-stained nuclei and scanty clear blue cyto plasm. Circulating lymphocytes enter the blood from the lymphatic tissues. Two principal types of immunocompetent lymphocytes can be identified T lymphocytes and В lymphocytes. T cells differentiate in the thymus and then circulate in the peripheral blood, where they are the principal effec tors of cell-mediated immunity. They also function as helper and suppressor cells, by modulating the immune response through their effect on В cells, plasma cells, macrophages, and other T Cells. В cells differentiate in bone marrow. Once activated by contact with an antigen, they differentiate into plasma cells, which synthesize antibodies that are secreted into the blood, intercellular fluid, and lymph. В lymphocytes also give rise to memory cells, which differentiate into plas ma cells only after the second exposure to the antigen. Monocytes vary in diameter from 15–18 mm and are the largest of the peripheral blood cells. They constitute 3–7 % of leukocytes. Monocytes possess an eccentric nucleus. The cytoplasm has a ground-glass appearance and fine azurophilic granules. Monocytes are the precursors for members of the mo-nonuclear phagocyte system, including tissue macrophages (histiocytes), osteoclasts, alveolar macrophages, and Kupffer cells of the liver.
mesodermal – мезодермальный erythrocytes – эритроциты leukocytes – лейкоциты fibrous proteins – волокнистые белки immune – иммунный humoral – гуморальный to contain – содержать nuclei – ядра
Plasma is the extracellular component of blood. It is an aqueous solution containing proteins, inorganic salts, and organic com pounds Albumin is the major plasma protein that maintains the osmotic pressure of blood. Other plasma proteins include the globulins (alpha, beta, gamma) and fibrinogen, which is necessary for the formation of fibrin in the final step of blood coagulation Plasma is in equilibrium with tissue interstitial fluid through capil lary walls; therefore, the composition of plasma may be used to judge the mean composition of the extracellular fluids Large blood proteins remain in the intravascular compartment and do not equilibrate with the interstitial fluid Serum is a clear yellow fluid that is separated from the coagulum during the process of blood clot formation. It has the same com position as plasma, but lacks the clotting factors (especially fib rinogen). Lymphatic vessels Lymphatic vessels consist of a, fine network of thin-walled vessels that drain into progressively larger and progressively thicker-walled collecting trunks. These ultimately drain, via the thoracic duct and right lymphatic duct, into the left and right subclavian veins at their angles of junction with the internal jugular veins, respectively. The lymphatics serve as a one-way (i. e., toward the heart) drainage sys tem for the return of tissue fluid and other diffusible substances, including plasma proteins, which constantly escape from the blood through capillaries. They are also important in serving as a conduit for channeling lymphocytes and antibodies produced in lymph nodes into the blood circulation. Lymphatic capillaries consist of vessels lined with endothelial cells, which begin as blind-ended tubules or saccules in most tis sues of the body Endothelium is attenuated and usually lacks a continuous basal lamina. . Lymphatic vessels of large diameter resemble veins in their struc ture but lack a clear-cut separation between layers. Valves are more numerous in lymphatic vessels. Smooth muscle cells in the media layer engage in rhythmic contraction, pumping lymph toward the venous system. Smooth muscle is well-developed in large lymphatic ducts. Circulation of lymph is slower than that of blood, but it is nonetheless an essential process. It has been estimated that in a single day, 50 % or more of the total circulating protein leaves the blood circulation at the capillary level and is recaptured by the lymphatics. Distribution of lymphatics is ubiquitous with some notable excep tions, including epithelium, cartilage, bone, central nervous sys tem, and thymus.