respiratory bronchioles – дыхательные бронхиолы hybrids – гибриды respiratory portions – дыхательные части airways – воздушные трассы bronchiolar – бронхиолярный terminal bron chioles – предельные бронхиолы passageway – проходы tocomprise – включить ducts – трубочки sinuous tubes – извилистые трубы thin-walled – окруженный тонкой стеной sacs – мешочки respiratory tree – дыхательное дерево hemoglobin – гемоглобин apical – апикальный
Visceral pleura is a thin serous membrane that covers the outer surface of the lungs. A delicate connective tissue layer of collagen and elastin, containing lymphatic channels, vessels, and nerves, supports the membrane. Its surface is covered by simple squamous mesothelium with microvilli. Parietal pleura is that portion of the pleura that continues onto the inner aspect of the thoracic wall. It is continuous with the visceral pleura and is lined by the same me-sothelium. Pleural cavity is a very narrow fluid-filled space that contains monocytes located between the two pleural membranes. It contains no gases and becomes a true cavity only in disease (e. g., in pleural infection, fluid and pus may accumulate in the pleural space). If the chest wall is punctured, air may enter the pleural space (pneumothorax), breaking the vacuum, and allowing the lung to recoil. Parietal pleura lines the inner surface of the thoracic cavity; visceral pleura follows the contours of the lung itself. Pleural cavity: The pleural cavity is the space between the parietal and viscer al layers of the pleura. It is a sealed, blind space. The introduction of air into the pleural cavity may cause the lung to collapse (pneumothorax). It normally contains a small amount of serous fluid elaborated by mesothelial cells of the pleural membrane. Pleural reflections are areas where the pleura changes direction from one wall to the other. The sternal line of reflection is where the costal pleura is con tinuous with the mediastinal pleura behind the sternum (from costal cartilages 2–4). The pleural margin then passes inferiorly to the level of the sixth costal cartilage. The costal line of reflection is where the costal pleura becomes continuous with the diaphragmatic pleura from rib 8 in the mid-clavicular line, to rib 10 in the midaxillary line, and to rib 12 lateral to the vertebral column. Pleural recesses are potential spaces not occupied by lung tissue except during deep inspiration. Costodiaphragmatic recesses are spaces below the inferior borders of the lungs where costal and diaphragmatic pleura are in contact. Costomediastinal recess is a space where the left costal and mediastinal parietal pleura meet, leaving a space due to the cardiac notch of the left lung. This space is occupied by the lingula of the left lung during inspiration. In nervation of the parietal pleura: The costal and peripheral portions of the diaphragmatic pleura are supplied by intercostal nerves. The central portion of the diaphragmatic pleura and the medi astinal pleura are supplied by the phrenic nerve.
visceral – висцеральный pleura – плевра dcollagen – коллаген elastin – эластин lymphatic channels – лимфатические сосуды nerves – нервы squamous – чешуйчатый microvilli – микроворсинки parietal pleura – париетальная плевра visceral pleura – висцеральная плевра costal – реберный
39. Nasal cavities
The anatomical structures that play a central role in the respiratory system are located in the head and neck as well as the thorax. Nasal cavities are separated by the nasal septum, which consists of the vomer, the perpendicular plate of the ethmoid bone, and the septal cartilage. The lateral wall of each nasal cavity features three scroll-shaped bony structures called the nasal conchae. The nasal cavities communicate posteriorly with the nasopharynx through the choanae. The spaces inferior to each concha are called meatus. The paranasal sinuses and the nasolacrimal duct open to the meati. The inferior concha is a separate bone, and the superior and middle conchae are parts of the ethmoid bone Inferior meatus. The only structure that opens to the inferior meatus is the nasolacrimal duct This duct drains lacrimal fluid (i. e., tears) from theTneaTaraspect of the orbit to the nasal cavity. Middle meatus: the hiatus semilumaris contains openings of frontal and maxillary sinuses and americy ethmoidal air cells. The bulla ethmoidalis contains the opening for the middle ethmoidal air cells. Superior meatus contains an opening for thff posterior ethmoidal air cells. Sphenoethmoidal recess is located above the superior concha and contains an opening for the sphenoid sinus. Innervation Somatic innervation General sensory information from the lateral wall and septum of the nasal cavity is conveyed to the CNS by branches of V, and V2. Autonomic innervation. Preganglionic parasympathetic fibers destined to supply the glands of the nasal mucosa and the lacrimal gland travel in the nervus intermedius and the greater superficial petrosal branches of the facial nerve (CN VII). These fibers synapse in the pte-rygopalatine ganglion, which is located in the pterygopa-latine fossa. Postganglionic fibers traveling to the mucous glands of the nasal cavity, paranasal air sinuses, hard and soft palate, and the lacrimal gland follow branches of V2 and in some cases V1, to reach their destinations.