cutaneous – кожный appendace – покров tubular – трубчатый pyramidal – пирамидальный surface – поверхность thermal – тепловой innervation – иннервация
Matter is anything that occupies space, possesses mass and can be perceived by our sense organs. It exists in nature in three, usually inter convertible physical states: solids, liquids and gases. For instance, ice, water and steam are respectively the solid, liquid and gaseous states of water. Things in the physical world are made up of a relatively small number of basic materials combined in various ways. The physical material of which everything that we can see or touch is made is matter. Matter exists in three different states: solid, liquid and gaseous. Human senses with the help of tools allow us to determine the properties of matter. Matter can undergo a variety of changes – physical and chemical, natural and controlled. Chemistry and physics deal with the study of matter, its properties, changes and transformation with energy. There are two kinds of properties: physical – colour, taste, odour, density, hardness, solubility and ability to conduct electricity and heat; in solids the shape of their crystals is significant, freezing and boiling points of liquids. Chemical properties are the changes in composition undergone by a substance when it is subjected to various conditions. The various changes may be physical and chemical. The physical properties are temporary. In a chemical change the composition of the substance is changed and new products are formed. Chemical properties are permanent. It is useful to classify materials as solid, liquid or gas (though water, for example, exists as solid (ice), as liquid (water) and as gas (water vapour). The changes of state described by the terms solidify (freeze), liquify (melt), va-pourise (evaporate) and condense are examples of physical changes. After physical change there is still the same material. Water is water whether it is solid, liquid or gas. Also, there is still the same mass of material. It is usually easy to reverse a physical change.
matter – материя mass – масса sense – чувство organ – орган steam – пар to undergo – подвергать variety – разнообрзие change – перемена physical – физический chemical – химический natural – природный transformation – трансформация colour – цвет taste – вкус odour – запах density – плотность hardness – твердость solubility – растворимость ability – возможность to conduct – проводить permanent – постоянный
8. Skeletal system
The components of the skeletal system are derived from mesenchymal elements that arise from mesoderm and neural crest. Mesenchymal cells differentiate into fibroblasts, chondroblasts, and osteoblasts, which produce connective tissue, cartilage, and bone tissue, respectively. Bone organs either develop directly in mesenchymal connective tissue (intramembranous ossification) or from preformed cartilage models (endochondral ossification) The splanch nic mesoderm gives rise to cardiac and smooth muscle. The skeletal system develops from paraxial mesoderm. By the end of the fourth week, the sclerotome cells form embryonic connective tissue, known as mesenchyme. Mesenchyme cells migrate and differentiate to form fibroblasts, chondroblasts, or osteoblasts. Bone organs are formed by two methods. Flat bones are formed by a process known as intra-membinous ossification, in which bones develop directly within mesenchyme. Long bones are formed by a process known as endochondral ossification, in which mesenchymal cells give rise hyaline cartilage models that subsequently become ossified Skull formation. Neurocranium is divided into two portions: The membranous neurocranium consists of flat bones that surround the brain as a vault The bones appose one another at sutures and fontanelles, which allow overlap of bones during birth and remain membranous until adulthood. The cartilaginous neurocranium (chondro-cranium) of the base of the skull is formed by fusion and ossification . -j of number of separate cartilages along the median plate. Viscerocranium arises primarily from the first two pharynge arches. Appendicular system: The pectoral and pelvic girdles and the limbs comprise the appendicular system. Except for the clavicle, most bones of the system are end chondral. The limbs begin as mesenchymal buds with an apical ectodermal ridge covering, which exerts an inductive influence over the mesenchyme. Bone formation occurs by ossification of hyaline cartilage models. The cartilage that remains between the diaphysis and the epiphyses of a long bone is known as the epiphysial plate. It is the site of growth of long bones until they attain their final size and the epiphysial plate disappears. Vertebral column. During the fourth week, sclerotome cells migrate medially to surround the spinal cord and notochord. After proliferation of the caudal portion of the sclerotomes, the vertebrae are formed, each consisting of the caudal part of one sclerotome and cephalic part of the next. While the notochord persists in the areas of the vertebral bod ies, it degenerates between them, forming the nucleus pulposus. The latter, together with surrounding circular fibers of the annulus fibrosis, forms the intervertebral disc.