Шпаргалки по английскому языку

11. Muscles

Muscles are the active part of the motor apparatus; their contraction produces various movements. The muscles may be divided from a physiological standpoint into two classes: the voluntary muscles, which are under the control of the will, and the involuntary muscles, which are not. All muscular tissues are controlled by the nervous system. When muscular tissue is examined under the microscope, it is seen to be made up of small, elongated threadlike cells, which arc called muscle fibres, and which are bound into bundles by connective tissue. There are three varieties of muscle fibres: 1) striated muscle fibres, which occur in voluntary muscles; 2) unstriated muscles which bring about movements in the internal organs; 3) cardiac or heart fibres, which are striated like (1), but are otherwise different. Muscle consists of threads, or muscle fibers, supported by connective tissue, which act by fiber contraction. There are two types of muscles smooth and striated. Smooth, muscles are found in the walls of all the hollow organs and tubes of the body, such as blood vessels and intestines. These react slowly to stimuli from the autonomic nervous system. The striated, muscles of the body mostly attach to the bones and move the skeleton. Under the microscope their fibres have a cross – striped appearance. Striated muscle is capable of fast contractions. The heart wall is made up of special type of striated muscle fibres called cardiac muscle. The body is composed of about 600 skeletal muscles. In the adult about 35–40 % of the body weight is formed by the muscles. According to the basic part of the skeleton all the muscles are divided into the muscles of the trunk, head and extremities. According to the form all the muscles are traditionally divided into three basic groups: long, short and wide muscles. Long muscles compose the free parts of the extremities. The wide muscles form the walls of the body cavities. Some short muscles, of which stapedus is the smallest muscle in the human body, form facial musculature. Some muscles are called according to the structure of their fibres, for example radiated muscles; others according to their uses, for example extensors or according to their directions, for example, – oblique. Great research work was carried out by many scientists to determine the functions of the muscles. Their work helped to establish that the muscles were the active agents of motion and contraction.

New words

muscles – мышцы active – активный motor apparatus – двигательный аппарат various – различный movement – движение elongated – удлиненный threadlike – нитевидный be bound – быть связанным ability – возможность capable – способность scientist – ученый basic – основной

12. Bones

Bone is the type of connective tissue that forms the body s supporting framework, the skeleton. Serve to protect the internal organs from injury. The bone marrow inside the bones is the body’s major producer of both red and white blood cells. The bones of women are generally lighter than those of men, while children’s bones are more resilient than those of adults Bones also respond to certain physical physiological changes: atrophy, or waste away. Bones are generally classified in two ways. When classified on the basis of their shape, they fall into four categories: flat bones, such as the ribs; long bones, such as the thigh bone; short bones, such as the wrist bones; and irregular bones, such as the vertebrae. When classified on the basis of how they develop, bones are divided into two groups: endochondral bones and intramembraneous bones. Endochondral bones, such as the long bones and the bones at the base of the skull, develop from cartilage tissue Intramembraneous bones, such as the flat bones of the roof of the skull, are not formed from cartilage but develop under or within a connective tissue membrane. Although endochondral bones and intramembraneous bones form in different ways, they have the same structure. The formation of bone tissue (ossification) begins early in embryological development. The bones reach their full size when the person is about 25. Most adult bone is composed of two types of tissue: anouter layer of compact bone and an inner layer of spongy bone. Compact bone is strong and dense. Spongy bone is light and porous and contains bone marrow The amount of each type of tissue varies in different bones. The flat bones of the skull consist almost entirely of compact bone, with very little spongy tissue. In a long bone, such as the thigh bone, the shaft, called the diaphysis, is made up largely of compact bone. While the ends, called epyphyses, consist mostly of spongy bone. In a long bone, marrow is also present inside the shaft, in a cavity called the medullary cavity. Surrounding every bone, except at the surface where it meets another bone, is a fibrous membrane called the periosteum. The outer layer of the periosteum consists of a network of densely packed collagen fibres and blood vessels. This layer serves for the attachment of tendons, ligaments, and muscles to the bone and is also important in bone repair. The inner layer of the periosteum has many fibres, called fibres of Sharpey, which penetrate the bone tissue, anchoring the periosteum to the bone. The inner layer also has many bone-forming cells, or osteoblasts, which are responsible for the bone’s growth in diameter and the production of new bone tissue in cases of fracture, infection. In addition to the periosteum, all bones have another membrane, the endosteum. It lines the marrow cavity as well as the smaller cavities within the bone. This membrane, like the inner layer of the periosteum, contains os-teoblasts, and is important in the formation of new bone tissue.