Шпаргалки по английскому языку

13. Bones. Chemical structure,

Bone tissue consists largely of a hard substance called the matrix. Embedded in the matrix are the bone cells, or osteocytes. Bone matrix consists of both organic and inorganic materials. The organic portion is made up chiefly of collagen fibres. The inorganic portion of matrix constitutes about two thirds of a bone’s total weight. The chief inorganic substance is calcium phosphate, which is responsible for the bone’s hardness. If the organic portion were burned out the bone would crumble under the slightest pressure. In the formation of intramembraneous bone, certain cells of the embryonic connective tissue congregate in the area where the bone is to form. Small blood vessels soon invade the area, and the cells, which have clustered in strands, undergo certain changes to become osteoblasts. The cells then begin secreting collagen fibers and an intercellular substance. This substance, together with the collagen fibers and the connective tissue fibers already present, is called osteoid. Osteoid is very soft and flexible, but as mineral salts are deposited it becomes hard matrix. The formation of endochondral bone is preceded by the formation of a cartilaginous structure similar in shape to the resulting bone. In a long bone, ossification begins in the area that becomes the center of the shaft. In this area, cartilage cells become osteoblasts and start forming bone tissue This process spreads toward either end of the bone. The only areas where cartilage is not soon replaced by bone tissue are the regions where the shaft joins the two epiphyses. These areas, called epiphyseal pla-res, are responsible for the bones continuing growth in length. The bone’s growth in diameter is due to the addition of layers of bone around the outside of the shaft As they are formed, layers of bone on the inside of the shaft are removed. In all bones, the matrix is arranged in layers called lamellae. In compact bone, the lamellae are arranged concentrically around blood vessels, and the space containing each blood vessel is called a Haver-sian canal. The osteocytes are located between the lamellae, and the canaliculi containing their cellular extensions connect with the Haversian canals, allowing the passage of nutrients and other materials between the cells and the blood vessels. Bone tissue contains also many smaller blood vessels that extend from the periosteum and enter the bone through small openings. In long bones there is an additional blood supply, the nutrient artery, which represents the chief blood supply to the marrow. The structure of spongy is similar to that of compact bone. However, there are fewer Haversian canals, and the lamellae are arranged in a less regular fashion, forming spicules and strands known as trabeculae.

New words

bone – кость internal – внешний phosphorus – фосфор atrophy – атрофия spongy – губчатый tendon – сухожилие ligament – связка flexible – гибкий periosteum – надкостница osteoblast – остеобласт (клетка, образующая кость) rigidity – неподвижность shape – форма to crumble – крошиться to congregate – собираться epiphyseal – относящийся к эпифизу shaft – ствол, тело (длинной) кости, диафиз

14. Skull

Bones of the skull: the neurocranium (the portion of the skull that surrounds and protects the brain) or the viscerocra-nium (i. e., the skeleton of the face). Bones of the neurocranium Frontal, Parietal, Temporal, Occipital, Ethmoid, Sphenoid. Bones of the viscerocranium (surface): Maxilla, Nasal, Zygomatic, Mandible. Bones of the viscerocranium (deep): Ethmoid, Sphenoid, Vomer, Lacrimal, Palatine, Inferior nasal concha. Articulations: Most skull bones meet at immovable joints called sutures. The coronal suture is between the frontal and the parietal bones The sagittal suture is between two parietal bones. The lambdoid suture is between the parietal and the occipital bones. The bregma is the point at which the coronal suture intersects the sagittal suture The lambda is the point at which the sagittal suture intersects the lambdoid suture. The pterion is the point on the lateral aspect of the skull where the greater wing of the sphenoid, parietal, frontal, and temporal bones converge. The temporomandibular joint is between the mandibular fossa of the temporal bone and the condylar process of the mandible. The parotid gland is the largest of the salivary glands. Structures found within the substance of this gland include the following: Motor branches of the facial nerve CN VII enters the parotid gland after emerging from the stylomastoid foramen at the base of the skull. Superficial temporal artery and vein. The artery is a terminal branch of the external carotid artery. Retromandibular vein, which is formed from the maxillary and superficial temporal veins. Great auricular nerve, which is a cutaneous branch of the cer vical plexus. Auriculotemporal nerve, which is a sensory branch of V3. It supplies the TMJ and conveys postganglionic parasympathetic fibers from the otic ganglion to the parotid gland Parotid (Stensen s) duct, which enters the oral cavity at the level of the maxillary second molar. The facial artery is a branch of the external carotid artery in the neck. It terminates as the angular artery near the bridge of the nose.